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Indian History Chronology: Indian History is a topic of interest to many including foreigners because of the cultures and civilizations existed in this sub-continent. History of India can be studied under political, cultural, religious or economic heads. Chronologically, Indian History can be classified into three periods – Ancient India, Medieval India and Modern India. Ancient India (Pre-historic to AD 700) There were activities of proto humans (Homo erectus) in the Indian subcontinent 20 lakh years (2 million years) ago, and of Homo sapiens since 70,000 BC. But they were gathers/hunters. ancient india Ancient India : Courtesy Government of India The first inhabitants of Indian subcontinent might have been tribals like Nagas (North-East), Santhals (East-India), Bhils (Central India), Gonds (Central India), Todas (South India) etc. Most of them are speakers of the Austric, pre-Dravidian languages, such as Munda and Gondvi. Dravidians and Aryans are believed to be immigrants who came later to the sub-continent. Ancient India can be studied under other heads like Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic and Chalcolithic period – based on the type of stone/ metal tools people used. Paleolithic Period (2 million BC – 10,000 BC) Fire Tools made up of lime stone Ostrich Eggs Important Paleolithic sites : Bhimbetka (M.P), Hunsgi, Kurnool Caves, Narmada Valley (Hathnora, M.P), Kaladgi Basin Mesolithic Period (10,000 BC – 8,000 BC) Major Climatic Change happened Domestication of animals ie Cattle rearing started Microliths found at Brahmagiri (Mysore), Narmada, Vindya, Gujarat Neolithic Period (8000 BC – 4,000 BC) Agriculture Started Wheel discovered Inamgaon = An early village Important Neolithic Sites : Burzahom(Kashmir), Gufkral(Kashmir), Mehrgarh(Pakistan), Chirand(Bihar), Daojali Hading(Tripura/Assam), Koldihwa(UP), Mahagara(UP), Hallur(AP), Paiyampalli(AP), Maski, Kodekal, Sangana Kaller, Utnur, Takkala Kota. NB: Megalithic Sites: Brahmagiri, Adichanallur Also read: Temple Architecture and Sculpture - Hindu, Buddhist and Jain (Indian Culture Series – NCERT) Chalcolithic Period (4000 BC – 1,500 BC) Copper Age. Can be considered part of Bronze Age. (Bronze = Copper + Tin) Indus Valley Civilization (BC 2700 – BC 1900). Also cultures at Brahmagiri, Navada Toli (Narmada region), Mahishadal (W.Bengal), Chirand (Ganga region) Iron Age (BC 1500 – BC 200) Vedic Period (Arrival of Aryans ie. BC 1600 – BC 600) – Nearly 1000 years (Basic books of Hinduism, ie Vedas were composed, might have written down later.) Jainism and Buddhism Mahajanapadas – Major Civilization after Indus Valley- On banks of river Ganga Magadha empire – Bimbisara of Haryanka Kula Sisunga dyanasy – Kalasoka (Kakavarnin) Nanda empire – Mahapadma-nanda, Dhana-nanda Persian- Greek : Alexander 327 BC Mauryan Empire (321-185 BC) Chandra Gupta Maurya, Bindusara, Asoka Post Mauryan Kingdoms (Middle Kingdoms): Sunga (181-71 BC), Kanva (71-27BC), Satavahanas (235-100BC), Indo-Greeks, Parthians (19-45AD), Sakas (90BC-150AD), Kushanas(78AD) South Indian Kingdoms – Chola, Chera, Pandyas (BC 300) Gupta Kingdom (300AD – 800AD) : Classical Period Samudra Gupta (Indian Napoleon) Post Guptas or Contemporary Guptas Harshvardana, Vakatakas, Pallavas, Chalukyas. Also, Hunas, Maitrakas, Rajputs, Senas and Chauhans. Medieval India (AD 700 – AD 1857) AD: 800-1200: Tri partite struggle – Prathiharas, Palas and Rashtrakutas Attack of Muhammed Bin Kassim (AD 712) Rise of Islam and Sufism Mohammed Ghazni (AD 1000-27) Mohammed Ghori (AD 1175-1206) * Kingdoms of South India During Medieval India – Bhamini and Vijayanagara medieval india Medieval India – Courtesy Government of India Delhi Sultanate (1206 AD – 1526 AD) Slave Dynasty Kilji Dynasty Tuglaq Dynasty Sayyid Dynasty Lodi Dyanasty Mughals (AD 1526 – AD 1857) Great Mughals Later Mughals Arrival of Europeans Other Kingdoms of North India – Marathas, Sikhs Modern India (AD 1857 +) First War of Indian Independence (1857) Formation of Indian National Congress (1885) Formation of Muslim League (1906) Non Co-operation Movement (1920) Civil Disobedience Movement (1930) Quit India Movement (1942) Partition of India (1947) Constitutional Development of India (1946 – 1950) Economic Development of India Wars – India-Pak – Formation of Bangladesh; India- China New Economic Policy of 1991 Nuclear, Space and Defense Development

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